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Graphite is an allotrope of Carbon. Unlike Diamond (another allotrope of Carbon), it is a good electrical conductor. Being the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions, it is mined Naturally (Natural Graphite) - as well as can be prepared Artificially or Synthetically (Artificial Graphite or Synthetic Graphite). 


Natural Graphite is a mineral consisting of Graphitic Carbon. It varies in crystallinity. It is usually a mined source and contains other elements and minerals. Hence alot of processing is undertaken such as froth flotation to concentrate the graphite. Natural Graphite has fantastic properties of lubricity and is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. It is stable over a wide range of temperatures and has a high refractory - with a high melting point (3650°C).

Natural Graphite is subdivided into three types of material:
  • Amorphous
  • Flake
  • High Crystalline


Natural graphite is mostly consumed for refractories, batteries, steelmaking, expanded graphite, brake linings, foundry facings and lubricants.


Synthetic Graphite is the graphitization of CPC to temperatures of over 3000°C. There are essentially three types of Synthetic Graphite:
  • The first is electrographite, which is pure carbon produced from calcined petroleum coke and coal tar pitch in an electric furnace. 
  • The second type of synthetic graphite is produced by heating calcined petroleum coke (CPC) to 2800°C. 
  • The third type is Isostatic Graphite i.e. High Density Graphite manufactured differently from traditional Electrode methods by using a high pressure Isostatic Press. It provides properties which are very specific for certain applications - including EDM, Moulding, Sintering and Semi-conductors.

On the whole synthetic graphite tends to be of a lower density, higher porosity and higher electrical resistance. Its increased porosity makes it unsuitable for refractory applications. Synthetic Graphite consists mainly of graphitic carbon that has been obtained by graphitisation, heat treatment of non-graphitic carbon at high temperatures.


Synthetic graphite is used in many applications including but not limited to electric-arc electrodes, friction, foundry, electrical carbons, fuel cell bi-polar plates, crucibles, moulds, coatings, electrolytic processes, corrosion products, conductive fillers, rubber and plastic compounds, brake lining and drilling applications.

Isostatic Graphite is used in applications of EDM, Moulds, Diamond Tool Sintering, Con-casts, Dies, Semi-conductors etc. 

Properties of Graphite:

1. Graphite is a soft, slippery, grayish-black substance. It has a metallic lustre and is opaque to light.

2. Graphite is a good conductor of heat and electricity.

3. Graphite is a very stable allotrope of carbon but at a very high temperature it can be transformed into artificial diamond.

4. Chemically, graphite is stable and inert with most elements.  Being resistant to chemicals and having a high melting point and also because it is a good conductor of heat, graphite is used to make crucibles.

5. The presence of free electrons makes graphite a good conductor of electricity and it is used to make electrodes.

6. Non - wetable by Molten Metals

7. Highly Inert to Chemical Attach

8. Easily and Readily Machinable to the desired shape

At Titanic Alloys, we manufacture our components from Synthetic Graphite Electrode as well as Isostatic Graphite grades, manufacturing products including Blocks, Crucibles, Heating Elements, Plates, Rods, Tiles, Moulds, Dies and Granules & Powder.